In medical science, the presence of sugar or glucose in the blood is called blood sugar. Normal blood sugar levels in the body are important for body performance and health .
But the story is different if the level is too high or low. Blood sugar levels that are too high or low can have adverse effects both in the short and long term.
What Happens If Blood Sugar Is Too High?
Your blood sugar level is said to be too high if it exceeds 200 mg / dL. In medical science, blood sugar levels are too high called hyperglycemia.
This condition occurs when the body does not have enough insulin or due to insulin resistance, which is a hormone released by the pancreas. Insulin functions to spread sugar in the blood to all body cells so that it can be processed into energy.
Most of these conditions are experienced by diabetics who cannot live a healthy lifestyle, such as eating too much, lacking exercise, or forgetting to take diabetes or insulin. Other conditions that cause hyperglycemia in diabetics are:
- Taking steroid drugs.
- Undergoing surgery.
- Being infected with certain diseases.
Normal people who do not have diabetes can also develop hyperglycemia, especially if they are suffering from severe illness.
Your signs of having too high blood sugar levels are the body feels tired, appetite craze, reduced body weight, frequent thirst, and frequent urination .
If your blood sugar levels exceed 350 mg / dL, the symptoms you will feel are feelings of anxiety, decreased level of consciousness, extreme thirst, unclear vision and dizziness. Changes to skin conditions can also be seen, such as redness, dryness and heat.
Besides suffering from these things, blood sugar levels are too high, especially those who have never received treatment, can also cause serious harm such as diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar diabetes syndrome.
In addition, you can also experience infections in teeth and gums, skin problems, osteoporosis, kidney failure, nerve damage, blindness, and cardiovascular disease.
What Happens If Blood Sugar Is Too Low?
Blood sugar is too low or hypoglycemia occurs when your blood sugar levels are below 70 mg / dL. This condition is also common in diabetics. Side effects of drugs used to treat diabetes can reduce blood sugar levels excessively.
Insulin in diabetics is generally not functioning properly. Therefore, diabetics are required to consume insulin or drugs that can reduce blood sugar levels. Unfortunately, because it is consumed too much, insulin or anti-diabetes drugs can make blood sugar drop dramatically.
Hypoglycemia will quickly occur if insulin or anti-diabetic drugs are not accompanied by adequate food intake or do not eat at all. Excessive exercise can also trigger this condition.
This condition can also be experienced by those who are not diabetics. Some of the causes that might trigger hypoglycemia include:
- Eat too much alcohol .
- Having certain critical illnesses, such as hepatitis, anorexia nervosa, or rare tumors of the pancreas.
- Certain hormone deficiencies.
- Eating other people’s anti-diabetes drugs or drugs like quinine.
If your blood sugar levels are low, your body will be weak and powerless. Signs that you can feel are the skin turning pale, sweating, starving , fatigue, palpitations, tingling in the mouth area, anxiety, and irritability. The impact you will experience when blood sugar levels are too low (below 40 mg / dL), among others:
- Slurred speech.
- It’s hard to concentrate.
- Not able to stand or walk.
- Muscle twitching.
- Coma .
Let’s Check Your Blood Sugar
The way to find out blood sugar levels is to do a blood test. This test is useful for monitoring blood sugar levels in your body so as not to get out of normal limits.
Blood sugar tests can be done at home using a blood sugar test kit. You can also do a blood sugar test at the hospital. There are several types of blood sugar tests that can be done:
- Blood sugar tests that require you to fast. You are required to fast eight hours before taking a blood sample. This test is often used to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes.
- Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). In this test you will be given a certain amount of glucose and two hours later, your blood sugar levels will be checked.
- Hemoglobin A1c test or glyohemoglobin. This test is done to determine the level of blood sugar in red blood cells. These test results can provide information about your sugar levels over the past 2-3 months. This test makes it easy for doctors to change someone’s diabetes medications if needed. Unlike before, you don’t need to undergo special preparation to do this test.
Random blood sugar test. This test can be done at any time. Blood sugar levels can vary depending on one’s diet and when they last ate food before the test was carried out. Therefore, you do not need to make special preparations before the test is carried out. Because of the nature of not knowing time, this test is considered very useful because generally blood sugar levels in healthy people do not differ much throughout the day. If your blood sugar levels differ significantly, then there may be health problems. In addition to the hospital, this test can also be done at home using a blood sugar test kit.
Consult your doctor what tests are suitable for you to live. Also ask the doctor about the risks or other matters related to the test.
Then How Much is Normal Blood Sugar Level?
Normal blood sugar levels are not always the same, depending on when the test you are taking and the condition of your body. Things like consuming alcohol or caffeine can affect blood sugar levels. The following are normal blood sugar levels. But this is only an estimate because each laboratory has different standards.
If you take a test two hours after eating, the normal level of blood sugar is less than 140 mg / dL or 7.8 mmol / L. This number applies to those under 50 years of age. For those aged 50-60 years, the normal level is less than 150 mg / dL or 8.3 mmol / L. If you are 60 years and over, the normal level of blood sugar is 160 mg / dL or 8.9 mmol / L.
If you do a blood sugar test that requires fasting, the normal level of your blood sugar can be less or equal to 100 mg / dL or 5.6 mmol / L.
If you do a random blood sugar test, the results cannot be equated. The result depends on when and what you eat before undergoing the test. But generally normal blood sugar levels are at 80-120 mg / dL or 4.4-6.6 mmol / L (if you do the test before eating or after waking up). If you do a test when you want to sleep, the normal number is 100-140 mg / dL or 5.5-7.7 mmol / L.
If you undergo a hemoglobin test for blood sugar, normal levels are less than or around 7 percent.
Make sure you record the test date and results. Also pay attention to what you consume or activities that are carried out before undergoing the test. By regularly checking blood sugar tests and living a healthy life, you can avoid the negative effects of high or low blood sugar levels.